Sunday, December 8, 2019

European Influence on World Economy from 1850 - 1920 free essay sample

In the 19th and 20th centuries, Europe continued to shape and influence the world through strong-arming global trade, modernization, and colonization. European countries physically and/or economically controlled lands in Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East to export cash crops, creating economic dependence; this, in turn, inhibited modernization. In the late 19th century, Africa was partitioned among the European powers strictly for profit. China was plagued with internal conflicts in the 19th century, as the government resisted Western philosophy. Japan came out of seclusion in 1865 and successfully combined old traditions with western philosophies. Egypt failed to industrialize after Muhammad Ali’s death, and fell to the exploitation of the British. Latin America achieved independence by 1820; but without social change, they remained economically dependent on Europe and the world market. The countries that were able to industrialized would continue to progress, while the others remained stagnate. At the conclusion of the age of exploration and the depression of the 1870s, European firms received significantly less for African goods. To solve this problem, European firms established bases inside Africa to cut out the African middleman. In 1884, at the Berlin Conference, Africa was partitioned among the great European powers for development. Superior firepower, such as rapid-fire weapons and armed steamboats, along with organized dynamic strategies, were able to suppressed African resistance, even when seriously out numbered (Savrianos Africa). Europeans used local chiefs to gain the cooperation of the African people, and by 1914, Europe had colonized the majority of the continent of Africa (Savrianos Africa). Colonization was the first step toward bringing Africa into the global world market. European firms focused on exploiting African cash crops. With Europeans controlling the economy through industrial and financial monopoly, well-connected firms managed the resources exported from Africa; the most profitable being mineral and agricultural. There were three regional patterns of African integration into the world economy: cash crops from African farmers, European concession owning companies, and European settlers and mining companies (Savrianos Africa). The building of railroads in Africa assisted in the expansion of cash crops into the European market (Savrianos Africa). Private European firms brought African resources into the world market at the expense of African farmers and peasants. The European occupation of Africa from 1850 to 1914 had an enormous impact to both the African culture and economy. The missionaries had a great effect on African culture because they were the first Europeans who sought to change it; utilizing the principles of religion, medicine, and education. By 1900 most of the teaching was done by Africans (Savrianos Africa). The new educated/ thinking generation began to discount the old ways and questioned colonialism. This led to tribal resentment against the Europeans. The commodities leaving Africa flooded global markets, firms provided work to the peasant class, and the African economy was booming. However, Europeans dictated the African market, causing a damper to the newly educated and African industrialism. After the conclusion of the first opium war in 1842, European powers continued to intertwine themselves with China. In 1856, after supposed diplomatic disrespect, the English, one again, declares war on China. Another imperial list of demands was gained by the English to include: deeper penetration into china with 11 new treaty ports, unlimited travel in the interior in China, more territory near Hong Kong, and the re-legalization of opium, further weakening an already unstable government (Mayer, â€Å"China†). In 1874, France established a protectorate over Vietnam, and in 1882 occupied Hanoi near the Chinese border. Inevitably the French and Chinese went to war. The French were victorious and won the right to colonize Vietnam in 1185. China vowed to strengthen its armed forces, and by 1885 China had the strongest Asian navy, although it later defeated by the Japanese in 1894. European imperialism benefitted Europe while perpetuating Chinese civil conflicts. The Boxers tried to rid China of European influence. A secret society based around the martial arts experts called the Boxers, Vowed to save China and rid the empire of the Western enemies. In 1900 Boxer riots ensued Beijing, violently killing a Japanese diplomat and burning Christian churches. With the Empress’ support, war was declared on the West. By July 1900 the European powers maintained a force of 31,000 troops causing the Empress to flee to the north and the defeat of the Boxers. Rather than dismantling the empire, the Boxer protocol was signed in September 1901. This protocol required China to make a public apology, execute all levels of the Ching government, as well as westernize (Mayer â€Å"China†). Following years of revolts, the Ching dynasty finally fell in 1912. European influence leads Japan to modernize. In 1865 Japan ended the long era of seclusion from the outside world. In 1868 the emperor proclaimed the Charter Oath, freeing people to peruse their own interests. This caused a social shift leading to the end of the age of the untouchable samurai class in 1877. The Meji government realized it needed to quickly industrialize and began to invest in the infrastructure of Japan. Japan relied upon private entrepreneurs for basic, rapid economic growth and the purchase of government industries. Education laws also sent Japanese to European and American schools to bring back and establish a Japanese education system. Japan took and designed their government from various European models; in 1881 the first political parties emerged in Japan. In 1890 Japan had conducted its first elections under the new constitution and a bureaucracy based on college graduates. By 1900 Japan had a sense of achievement after rapidly industrializing and their numerous victories over China, Russia, and Korea (Mayer â€Å"Japan). In the early 19th century, Egypt began to grow and expand. In 1805 the Ottoman Sultan declared Muhammad Ali the governor of Egypt where he began to conquer his opponents to expand and control trade in and out of Egypt. Muhammad Ali encouraged the growing of cotton for the European market to fund industrialization and the education of Egyptians abroad. Muhammad Ali’s monopoly over trade routes began to conflict with the British plans for the Middle East; additionally, he had several conflicts with the Ottoman Sultan and threatened the Turkish capital. In 1939, after another rebellion, Muhammad Ali was forced by the British to back down; in return he was granted Egypt and was told to remain a subject of the Ottoman Empire. This was the end of the Egyptian expansion. After Muhammad Ali’s death in 1849, Egypt fell to British mercy and all modernization would eventually come to a halt. Muhammad Ali’s successors left Egypt bankrupt and serious instability ensued; the result was the British occupation of Egypt in 1882. Egyptian agriculture became so completely dominated by cotton for the English mills, grain had to be imported to feed the rural population (Mayer â€Å"Egypt†). The cotton and Suez Canal were vastly important to the British economy and Mediterranean defense, despite repeated protest from Egypt, the Egyptians would not be declared an independent monarchy until 1922. Even after independence, the British military continued to occupy Egypt. The British suppression on Egypt forever changed the region and directly led to underdevelopment of the nation. Latin America declared independence just to remain economically dependent. In the mid 1820’s Latin America had had broken trade monopolies and liberated from direct European dictatorship. The Creole victors remained in control allowing no revolutions or significant changes to social or economic structures to occur. With old trading patterns disrupted and domestic funds low, Latin American governments and businesses turned to Britain for protection, markets, and capital investments (Craig 767). This reliance would continue to hinder progression on most Latin American countries until the 1950s. Like Africa and Asia, Latin America would specialize in the exportation of specific commodities to feed the growing world economy. Although Latin America had to import most of its finished goods and demand for their commodities were based on foreign demand, Latin America was very prosperous from 1870 to 1930. Europe and the United States had a demand for foods such as wheat and beef, tropical products like bananas, sugar and coffee, and metals such as copper (Craig 774). Because of the cycle of exporting commodities to import finished goods, declines in prices and the need for raw materials always hit Latin America first and lasted there the longest (Craig 774). The economy of specialized exportation would leave Latin America with little control over their economy, even in good times. Latin America failed to modernize. Due to the political philosophies embraced by the Creole elites, no one challenged social order. This, tied to the dependence on foreign markets for niche commodities, led Latin America to become under developed and discouraged the need for modernization (Craig 784). Latin Americans still thought of land as the biggest domestic investment and foreigners had little reason to invest capital in Latin American industrialization because it could cut into their own profits from importing finished goods (Craig 774). In the 1920s the United States would trade places with Great Brittan and become the next major trading partner with Latin America, ensuring the continuance of their economic dependence (Craig 775). Without modernization and with their current exporting approach, Latin America would have too narrow of a base for self-sustaining economic success. European powers were able to influence and shape word history through their ability to exploit niche economies around the globe. Through colonization, Africa was brought into the growing world economy, but Africans were held back by the control of European firms. China struggled to maintain civil order while falling to European penetration and ideas. Japan, on the other hand, embraced the modern social structure of Europe and the west, and became modern and self-sustaining. Egypt became socially stagnate after English occupation and the exploitation of Egyptian cotton. Even when Latin America was doing well, they remained dependant on Europe and were unable to control their own economy.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Research Proposal on Social Media Essay Example

Research Proposal on Social Media Essay Social media is the kind of mass media which is represented by the Internet, computer technologies and software used to provide people with information of all kinds. Social media is becoming more and more important and popular nowadays and very soon it is expected that it will replace all other kinds of media, like periodicals, radio and television. Newspapers are already starting to lose their positions in the world of mass media, because of the fast development of the informational technologies. Social media is carried out through the range of websites which gather people of different parts of the world who share common interests and want to improve their knowledge and satisfy their interest. Social media is the new level of mass media, because the consumers do not simply percept and receive information but they create it themselves. A great number of websites and social network web sites, blogs offer possibilities for people from all over the world share their ideas, exchange information of all kinds (images, audio, video files, presentations, all kinds of documents). With the help of social media people can receive information faster, because today every event which has taken place is placed in the Internet at first and only later on TV and newspapers. Social media is the symbol of the modern age of information and nearly every person who has the access to the Internet is involved into it. A well-composed research proposal is supposed to interesting, brief, logical and convincing in order to make the professor believe the problem is worth investigating. In order to prepare a good research proposal one will need to get to know about the topic, improve his knowledge about it, realize the definition, types and methods of social media. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Social Media specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Social Media specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Proposal on Social Media specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer When one understands the key points related with social media, its advantages and disadvantages, he will be able to present his own point of view about it writing a successful research proposal on the topic. The proposal is the ticket to writing a great research paper, so students should know how to prepare this brief paper well to get the chance to investigate the problem deeper. The best way to prepare a good research proposal is to look through a good model for writing offered by a teacher or more often found in the Internet. A free example research proposal on social media explains the way of writing of such kind of paper on the example of the particular situation. A student will get the idea of writing the paper correctly when he reads a free sample research proposal on social media in the web. He will see the required structure, possible manner of data presentation and rules of formatting. NOTE!!! As all free sample research proposals and examples on Social Media are 100% plagiarized, we are here to help you! EssayLib.com is a leading research proposal writing service, which can offer you the solution you have been looking for. With thousands of written research papers and proposals for Master’s and PhD degrees, we can give you exactly what you need at very affordable prices. Our experienced writers will prove you that high quality and exclusivity is a trademark of our products. We can guarantee your confidentiality and promise you strict on time delivery. There are many reasons for EssayLib.com to become your favorite custom writing service, but all we are asking you – just give us a try!

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Collective Bargaining Agreements Essays - Labour Relations, Labor

Collective Bargaining Agreements Essays - Labour Relations, Labor Collective Bargaining Agreements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction.Page 2 Management RightsPage 3 Union Security.Page 4 Wages and Benefits Page 5 Individual Security (Seniority) Rights..Page 6 Dispute Resolution..Page 7 Bibliography Page 10 COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS A collective bargaining agreement collectively sets the terms on which an employer offers individual work contracts to each of its employees in the bargaining unit. A bargaining agreement, also herein referred to as a labor agreement, is a legally enforceable written commitment, which states the rights and duties of all parties involved. The labor agreement should be made in good faith and is intended to be observed and not violated. The National Labor Relations Act obligates employers and unions to bargain in good faith concerning terms and conditions of employment, including hours and wages. Like any normal contract, competent parties must enter into a labor agreement. However, a labor agreement is unique from other legal contracts in that there is no consideration involved and nothing tangible is exchanged. Many, but not all, unions require formal ratification of a new labor contract by a majority membership acceptance, which is determined through vote by the members. Until majority approval of those voting in a ratification election is received, the proposed labor contract is not final. While each labor agreement is unique to the needs of an organization and its employees, most agreements include five issues: (1) Management Rights, (2) Union Security, (3) Wages and Benefits, (4) Individual Security (Seniority) Rights, and (5) Dispute Resolution. Management Rights Management is the process of working with people and

Friday, November 22, 2019

Life and Work of Roy Lichtenstein, Pop Art Pioneer

Life and Work of Roy Lichtenstein, Pop Art Pioneer Roy Lichtenstein  (born Roy Fox Lichtenstein; October 27, 1923  Ã¢â‚¬â€œÃ‚  September 29, 1997) was one of the most prominent figures in the Pop Art movement in the United States. His use  of  comic book art as source material to create large-scale works in the Ben-Day dot method became a trademark of his work. Throughout his career, he explored art in a wide range of media, from painting to sculpture and even film. Fast Facts: Roy Lichtenstein Occupation:  ArtistBorn:  October 27, 1923 in New York City, New YorkDied:  September 29, 1997 in New York City, New YorkEducation:  Ohio State University, M.F.A.Notable Works:  Masterpiece  (1962),  Whaam!  (1963),  Drowning Girl (1963),  Brushstrokes  (1967)Key Accomplishments:  American Academy of Arts and Letters (1979), National Medal of the Arts (1995)Spouse(s):  Isabel Wilson (1949-1965), Dorothy Herzka (1968-1997)Children:  David Lichtenstein, Mitchell LichtensteinFamous Quote:  I like to pretend that my art has nothing to do with me. Early Life and Career Born and raised in New York City, Roy Lichtenstein was the oldest child of an upper-middle-class Jewish family. His father, Milton Lichtenstein, was a successful real estate broker, and his mother Beatrice was a homemaker. Roy attended public school until he was 12  years old. He then attended a private college preparatory high school until he graduated in 1940.   Lichtenstein discovered his love of art in school. He played piano and clarinet, and was a  fan of jazz music. He  often drew images of jazz musicians and their instruments. While in high school, Lichtenstein enrolled in summer classes of the Art Students League of New York City, where his primary mentor was the painter Reginald Marsh. In September 1940, Roy entered Ohio State University, where he studied art and other subjects. His primary influences were Pablo Picasso and Rembrandt, and he  often stated that Picassos Guernica was his favorite painting. In 1943, World War II interrupted Roy Lichtensteins education. He served for three years in the U.S. Army and continued as a student at Ohio State University in 1946 with assistance from the G.I. bill. Hoyt L. Sherman, one of his professors, had a significant influence on the young artists future development. Lichtenstein earned his Master of Fine Arts from Ohio State in 1949. Early Success Lichtenstein had his first solo show in New York City in 1951,  years after he graduated from Ohio State. His work at the time fluctuated between Cubism and Expressionism. He moved to Cleveland, Ohio, for six years, then in 1957 returned to New York, where he briefly dabbled in abstract expressionism. Lichtenstein took a position teaching at Rutgers University in 1960. One of his colleagues, Alan Kaprow, a pioneer of performance art, became a new significant influence. In 1961, Roy Lichtenstein produced his first pop paintings. He incorporated the comic style of printing with Ben-Day dots to create the painting Look Mickey, featuring the characters Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck. Reportedly, he was responding to a challenge by one of his sons, who pointed at Mickey Mouse in a comic book and said, I bet you cant paint as good as that, eh, Dad? In 1962, Lichtenstein had a solo show at the Castelli Gallery in New York City. All of his pieces were purchased  by influential collectors before the show even opened. In 1964, amid his growing fame, Lichtenstein resigned from his faculty position at Rutgers to concentrate on his painting. Emergence as a Pop Artist   In 1963, Roy Lichtenstein created two of the best-known works of his entire career: Drowning Girl and Whaam!, both of which  were adapted from DC comic books. Drowning Girl, in particular, exemplifies his  approach to creating pop art pieces out of existing comic art. He cropped the original image to make a new dramatic statement, and  used a shorter, and more direct, version of the text from the original comic. The massive increase in size gives the piece a very different impact from the original comic  book panel. Much like Andy Warhol, Lichtensteins work generated questions about the nature and interpretation of art. While some celebrated the audacity of his work, Lichtenstein was heavily criticized by those who argued that his pieces were empty copies of something that already existed. Life magazine ran an article in 1964 titled, Is He the Worst Artist in the U.S.? The relative lack of emotional engagement in his work was seen as a slap in the face to the soul-baring approach of abstract expressionism.   In 1965, Lichtenstein  abandoned the use of  comic book images as primary source material.  Some critics are still bothered by the fact that royalties were never paid to the artists who created the original images used in Lichtensteins large-scale works.   In the 1960s, Roy Lichtenstein also created cartoon-style works with Ben-Day dots that reinterpreted classic paintings by art masters, including  Cezanne, Mondrian, and Picasso. In the latter part of the decade, he created series of paintings that depicted comic-style versions of brushstrokes.  The works took the most elemental form of traditional painting and turned it into a pop art object, and were intended to be a send-up of abstract expressionisms emphasis on gestural painting. Later Life In 1970, Roy Lichtenstein bought a former carriage house in Southampton, Long Island, New York. There, Lichtenstein  built a studio and spent most of the rest of the decade out of the public spotlight. He included representations of his older works in some of his new paintings. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, he also worked on still lifes, sculptures, and drawings.   Late in his career, Lichtenstein received  commissions for large-scale public works. These works include the 26-foot  Mural with Blue Brushstrokes at New Yorks Equitable Center, created in 1984, and the 53-foot Times Square Mural for the New Yorks Times Square Bus Station, created in 1994. The corporate logo for Dreamworks Records, commissioned by David Geffen and Mo Ostin, was Lichtensteins last completed commission before his death. Lichtenstein died of pneumonia on  September 29, 1997  after several weeks of hospitalization. Legacy Roy Lichtenstein was one of the leading figures in the Pop Art movement. His method of turning ordinary comic strip panels into monumental pieces was his way of elevating what he felt were dumb cultural artifacts. He referred to pop art as industrial painting, a term that reveals the movements roots in mass production of common images.   The monetary value of Roy Lichtensteins work continues to increase. The  1962 painting Masterpiece  which sold for $165 million in 2017, features a cartoon bubble whose text is seen as a wry prediction of Lichtensteins fame: My, soon you will have all of New York clamoring for your work. Sources Wagstaff, Sheena.  Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective.  Yale University Press, 2012.Waldman, Diane.  Roy Lichtenstein. Guggenheim Museum Publications, 1994.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Serpico Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Serpico - Essay Example An understanding of Serpico’s story helps to illuminate the importance of integrity, autonomy and responsibility in every individual involved with criminal justice. The story of Frank Serpico has proved the impetus for a variety of police reforms and attempts at reform as the public found out just how extensive the system of ‘crooked cops’ went following Serpico’s revelations to the New York Times when he found his superiors unresponsive and incapable of dealing with what he encountered. Rather than being a case of a problem that had been so long unknown that it was beyond control, much like a houseful of termites within the framework, what Serpico uncovered in the 1960s and early 1970s was a case of so many individuals embroiled in the action that it was nearly impossible to find superiors capable of following through on investigations without implicating themselves. Reading through the slightly fictionalized biography of Frank Serpico reveals not only the extraordinary conditions in which he finds himself, but the several places in his life in which he was forced to make a difficult ethical decision, often at his own perso nal cost and suggests places in which an equally ethical criminal justice administrator might have been of significant assistance. The story opens up as Serpico is being rushed to the hospital after having been shot in the face in what is still debated as possibly an arranged ‘hit’ between the drug dealers and the police officers with whom he was working. Once it is properly established that this did not prove to be a fatal shot, although it came within fractions of a centimeter of being so, the novel turns to recount the past events of Serpico’s life that had brought him to the hospital that night and why suspicions of conspiracy were circulating. Touching only very briefly upon his childhood

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The Case Of Brian Keith Rose Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Case Of Brian Keith Rose - Term Paper Example Rose was initially charged in State court in Baltimore County though evidence in the form of a partial fingerprint was thrown out by a Baltimore County Judge. The United States Attorney took over the case after Judge Souder’s October 2007 ruling. Souder’s ruling was based on the fact that technique used to analyze the fingerprints was not scientifically reliable. State charges against Rose were then dropped and the case was re-filed in the US District Court (Brendan, 2010).MD Rule 5-702 requires that latent fingerprint identification methods rest on reliable factual foundations and in this case the ACE-V method used was not proved to be reliable and factual in State Court. Initially no latent fingerprints were identified by the crime lab and homicide Detectives suggested several names of suspects to the crime lab. At that time these names, including Brian Rose, were compared to the latent print recovered. Both sides in this case requested that the Court determine the re liability of the ACE-V methodology, hence allowing or disallowing the latent prints as evidence. The defendants contended that the ACE-V is not a method which has been scientifically tested, thus the error rate is unknown. Without an error rate it is impossible to know the reliability of this methodology. A fingerprint is in essence a reproduction of friction ridge formations of the surface of a finger, left by the transfer of oil or other matter between the finger and the object. These ridges form before birth.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Unwrapping Technology Essay Example for Free

Unwrapping Technology Essay Today’s educators have an endless pool of technological teaching aids at their fingertips. The Worldwide web has put teaching programs, learning apps, downloadable content, and all manner of communication at the availability of everyone. This information is readily and easily accessed. There are electronic whiteboards, video creating and editing programs, Ipads, learning games regarding all subjects, and an endless pool of help and ideas that can facilitate teaching, learning, and communication. Teachers can utilize them all to help students reach each of the standards implemented in NETS-S. The standards for this bracket include creating videos that record and document school or community functions, gather data, use digital tools and resources, use information gathering technologies, learning to identify and solve computer problems, explore curriculum from perspectives of other cultures, evaluate and determine credibility of resources, and among other things engaging in online collaborative learning projects. All standards work together to create an informed student who has the basic tools needed to become successful in a swiftly advancing technological world. Among the many standards and requirements expected to be learned by 6th-8th graders almost all of them are right on the mark and can easily be implemented in the classroom, especially number 2. Standard number 2 refers to creating animations or videos that document school or community events. This age group is constantly taking photos or videos for their own social outlets. Tapping into this type of media will be inspiring for the students and can encourage learning through a skill they enjoy and identify with. Learning through the use of technology can be a wonderful experience for students. There are many ways technology can be used to enhance lessons or engage the students, where more primitive manners of teaching such as straight lecture and note taking can be dry and quite frankly lose the interest of the students. One such tool is the electronic whiteboard. The electronic whiteboard allows the teacher to project images for their computer onto the board in the front of the class. A teacher can prepare a slide show, power point, or show movies or videos regarding the subject being taught. This can draw the attention both visual and auditory of the class. Watching a movie where a science experiment is done can be more intriguing than just listening to a speech about it. Ipads are another great tool that can be used to create an enjoyable learning experience. They can be used to play learning games or even as a manner for communication for certain handicapped students. All of the NETS-S standards and requirements are reasonable there are some that may not be implemented or may be difficult to support. For example: Creating â€Å"original animations or videos documenting school, community, or local events. (NETS-S, 2008) may be difficult if the school does not have video equipment or programs to support this type of activity. Each school will have its own set of standards and available tools that need to be taken into consideration when trying to follow standards. Teachers may have limited resources to work with but they can attempt to apply for grants from sites such as Grant Wrangler (http://grantwrangler. com/) and Teachers Count (h ttp://www. teacherscount. org/teacher/grants. shtml). The resources are out there but need to be sought out and found. The one expectation that I feel is missing from the standards are relatively fast typing skills. Typing skills can be quite a useful skill to teach and can aid students from this age group up as they begin to have more and more typed assignments given. The usage of programs such as â€Å"Word† and becoming familiar with it will also be helpful from this age all the way up to college. By giving them these two tools we are preparing them for their future. The NETS-S standards are put in place to help nurture students to evolve into capable and involved community members. The technological world we live in is changing more rapidly than ever and it is in the benefit of both student and teacher to learn and advance with the times so they can be knowledgeable and stay at the forefront of these changes. As educators it is part of our job to prepare students for their future, and much of our future lies in technology, NETS-S is helping us do that. Reference: NETS-S . Retrieved from http://www. iste. org/docs/pdfs/nets-s-2007-student-profiles-en. pdf? sfvrsn=4